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Jan namensbedeutung

jan namensbedeutung

Der Name Jan. Alles für Jan: Namensbedeutung, Namenstag, Herkunft, Berühmte Persönlichkeiten und Ähnliche Namen. Der Name Jan kommt seit den er Jahren vermehrt vor. Seit ca. wurden verhältnismäßig viele Jungen so genannt. Seit den er Jahren steht Jan. Hier findest du alles zum Vornamen Jan: ✅ Statistik & Beliebtheit ✅ Herkunft ✅ Bedeutung ✅ Namenstag ✅ Berühmte Persönlichkeiten. Erst danach sagt man Jan auch wenn es im Pass so köln werder bremen live stream. Votet jetzt für eure Lieblingsnamen! Leute, die du vorher mochtest? Sonst müsste man "Jahn" schreiben, und das ist ein Nachname. Habe ich mädchenname e richtig verstanden? Der Name ist ganz schön aber für mich viiiiiiiel huge slots häufig, leider. Die Spanier sprechen es mit kurzem "a" aus, was ja im Spanischen üblich ist, bei der deutschen Aussprache dagegen bevorzuge ich ein langes "a" Ich boxen mayweather vs mcgregor die Nutzungs- und Datenschutzbedingungen. Ich finde euren Namen gut! Keine Auswahl männlich weiblich Herkunft: Bin auf Eure Meinungen gespannt! Du schlichtest jeden Streit noch gütlich. Aber Jan Ole hatte ich als Namen auch immer im Kopf, da es zusammen klasse klingt. Zu Details hierzu sowie generell zur Verarbeitung deiner Daten und Widerrufsmöglichkeiten, verweisen wir dich auf el finale Datenschutzerklärung.

namensbedeutung jan - was specially

Rang 30 im Februar Ich habe noch keine Anung wie ich ihn nennen soll! Er gehört seit Jahrzehnten zu meinem Lieblingsnamen. Ich hatte mal ne Kaffeetasse mit meinem Namen, und folgendem Spruch: In Europa ist Jan eine besonders beliebte Form. Ich spreche es so aus, wie die Namensträger es gern hätten. Schwangerschaft trotz kurzer Blutung möglich? Jan ist ein zeitlos schöner Name. Deswegen würde ich einen ZN nehmen. Vorname Jan Anzahl der Image-Bewertungen:

Jan namensbedeutung - phrase

Um die Weiblichkeit hervorzuheben, ruft man Janmanee oder Djanmanee. Rang 24 im Dezember Hier hilft die Brailleschrift , die sich aus Punkten zusammensetzt und die Blinde und Sehbehinderte ertasten können. Wie kann man kleinen Jan nennen? Der Name ist ganz schön aber für mich viiiiiiiel zu häufig, leider ;-. Das würde mir sehr gefallen. Votet jetzt für eure Lieblingsnamen!

Conservative Judaism generally rejects the Talmudic interpretation of Satan as a metaphor for the yetzer hara , and regard him as a literal agent of God.

Satan is mentioned explicitly in some daily prayers, including during Shacharit and certain post-meal benedictions, as described in Talmud [60] and the Jewish Code of Law.

This in turn was borrowed from Greek diabolos " slanderer ", from diaballein "to slander": Then indeed he may plunder his house" Matthew The Synoptic Gospels identify Satan and his demons as the causes of illness, [70] including fever Luke 4: Charlesworth , there is no evidence the surviving book of this name ever contained any such content.

The Book of Revelation represents Satan as the supernatural ruler of the Roman Empire and the ultimate cause of all evil in the world.

Michael and his angels fought against Dragon. Dragon and his angels fought back, but they were defeated, and there was no longer any place for them in Heaven.

Dragon the Great was thrown down, that ancient serpent who is called Devil and Satan, the one deceiving the whole inhabited World - he was thrown down to earth and his angels were thrown down with him.

Despite the fact that the Book of Genesis never mentions Satan, [17] Christians have traditionally interpreted the serpent in the Garden of Eden as Satan due to Revelation The name Heylel , meaning "morning star" or, in Latin, Lucifer , [c] was a name for Attar , the god of the planet Venus in Canaanite mythology , [] [] who attempted to scale the walls of the heavenly city, [] [] but was vanquished by the god of the sun.

In his apologetic treatise Contra Celsum , however, Origen changed his interpretations of Isaiah Most early Christians firmly believed that Satan and his demons had the power to possess humans [] and exorcisms were widely practiced by Jews, Christians, and pagans alike.

Satan had minimal role in medieval Christian theology , [] but he frequently appeared as a recurring comedic stock character in late medieval mystery plays , in which he was portrayed as a comic relief figure who "frolicked, fell, and farted in the background".

The Canon Episcopi , written in the eleventh century AD, condemns belief in witchcraft as heretical, [] but also documents that many people at the time apparently believed in it.

In the late fifteenth century, a series of witchcraft panics erupted in France and Germany. By the early s, skeptics in Europe, including the English author Reginald Scot and the Anglican bishop John Bancroft , had begun to criticize the belief that demons still had the power to possess people.

Mormonism developed its own views on Satan. According to the Book of Moses , the Devil offered to be the redeemer of mankind for the sake of his own glory.

After his offer was rejected, Satan became rebellious and was subsequently cast out of heaven. It was through this pact that Cain became a Master Mahan.

Douglas Davies asserts that this text "reflects" the temptation of Jesus in the Bible. Belief in Satan and demonic possession remains strong among Christians in the United States [] [] [] and Latin America.

Scott Poole, author of Satan in America: The Devil We Know , has opined that "In the United States over the last forty to fifty years, a composite image of Satan has emerged that borrows from both popular culture and theological sources" and that most American Christians do not "separate what they know [about Satan] from the movies from what they know from various ecclesiastical and theological traditions.

Bernard McGinn describes multiple traditions detailing the relationship between the Antichrist and Satan. Seven suras in the Quran describe how God ordered all the angels and Iblis to bow before the newly-created Adam.

In the Quran, Satan is apparently an angel, [] but, in Ibn Abbas asserts that the word jinn could be applied to earthly jinn, but also to "fiery angels" like Satan.

Hasan of Basra , an eminent Muslim theologian who lived in the seventh century AD, was quoted as saying: He is the origin of Jinn as Adam is of Mankind.

When he was expelled from Paradise, Satan blamed humanity for his punishment. The Muslim historian Al-Tabari , who died in around AD, [] writes that, before Adam was created, earthly jinn made of smokeless fire roamed the earth and spread corruption.

During the first two centuries of Islam, Muslims almost unanimously accepted the veracity of a tradition known as the Satanic Verses.

The hadith teach that newborn babies cry because Satan touches them while they are being born, and that this touch causes people to have an aptitude for sin.

Women are the ropes of Satan. Wine is the key to every evil. The ashes I put on the faces of orphans, so that people come to dislike them.

According to Sufi mysticism, Iblis refused to bow to Adam because he was fully devoted to God alone and refused to bow to anyone else.

Muslims believe that Satan is also the cause of deceptions originating from the mind and desires for evil. He is regarded as a cosmic force for separation, despair and spiritual envelopment.

Muslims do distinguish between the satanic temptations and the murmurings of the bodily lower self Nafs. The lower self commands the person to do a specific task or to fulfill a specific desire; whereas the inspirations of Satan tempt the person to do evil in general and, after a person successfully resists his first suggestion, Satan returns with new ones.

Theistic Satanism, commonly referred to as "devil worship", [] views Satan as a deity , whom individuals may supplicate to. Atheistic Satanism, as practiced by the Satanic Temple and by followers of LaVeyan Satanism , holds that Satan does not exist as a literal anthropomorphic entity, but rather as a symbol of a cosmos which Satanists perceive to be permeated and motivated by a force that has been given many names by humans over the course of time.

In this religion, "Satan" is not viewed or depicted as a hubristic, irrational, and fraudulent creature, but rather is revered with Prometheus -like attributes, symbolizing liberty and individual empowerment.

Gilmore , further expounds that " Satan is a symbol of Man living as his prideful, carnal nature dictates. The reality behind Satan is simply the dark evolutionary force of entropy that permeates all of nature and provides the drive for survival and propagation inherent in all living things.

Satan is not a conscious entity to be worshiped, rather a reservoir of power inside each human to be tapped at will".

LaVeyan Satanists embrace the original etymological meaning of the word "Satan" Hebrew: According to Peter H.

Gilmore, "The Church of Satan has chosen Satan as its primary symbol because in Hebrew it means adversary, opposer, one to accuse or question.

We see ourselves as being these Satans; the adversaries, opposers and accusers of all spiritual belief systems that would try to hamper enjoyment of our life as a human being.

The main deity in the tentatively Indo-European pantheon of the Yazidis , Melek Taus , is similar to the devil in Christian and Islamic traditions, as he refused to bow down before humanity.

In fact, there is no entity in Yazidism which represents evil in opposition to God; such dualism is rejected by Yazidis. In the Middle Ages , the Cathars , practitioners of a dualistic religion, were accused of worshipping Satan by the Catholic Church.

Pope Gregory IX stated in his work Vox in Rama that the Cathars believed that God had erred in casting Lucifer out of heaven and that Lucifer would return to reward his faithful.

On the other hand, according to Catharism, the creator-god of the material world worshipped by the Catholic Church is actually Satan.

Wicca is a modern, syncretic Neopagan religion, [] whose practitioners many Christians have incorrectly assumed to worship Satan. Much modern folklore about Satanism does not originate from the actual beliefs or practices of theistic or atheistic Satanists, but rather from a mixture of medieval Christian folk beliefs, political or sociological conspiracy theories, and contemporary urban legends.

William Blake regarded Satan as a model of rebellion against unjust authority [] and features him in many of his poems and illustrations, [] including his book The Marriage of Heaven and Hell , [] in which Satan is celebrated as the ultimate rebel, the incarnation of human emotion and the epitome of freedom from all forms of reason and orthodoxy.

The mosaic "Christ the Good Sheppard" features a blue angel which appears to the left hand side of Jesus behind three goats. Medieval Christians were known to adapt previously existing pagan iconography to suit depictions of Christian figures.

Italian frescoes from the late Middle Ages onward frequently show Satan chained in Hell, feeding on the bodies of the perpetually damned.

Detail of Satan from The Last Judgement c. Satan Summoning his Legions by Thomas Lawrence. Satan and Death with Sin Intervening c.

Satan Watching the Caresses of Adam and Eve c. Satan Arousing the Rebel Angels c. Depiction of Satan c.

Jesus drives Satan right away in this woodcut by von Karolsfeld. Alex Sanders , a former black magician, served as a consultant on the film to ensure that the rituals portrayed in it were depicted accurately.

References to Satan in music can be dated back to the Middle Ages. During the fifth century, a musical interval called the tritone became known as "the devil in Music" and was banned by the Catholic Church.

Tartini claimed that the sonata was a lesser imitation of what the Devil had played in his dream. Later, Robert Johnson claimed that he had sold his soul in return for becoming a great blues guitarist.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the entity that is labelled "Satan". For the general concept of devils, see Devil.

For other uses, see Satan disambiguation. Figure in Abrahamic religions. Sixteenth-century illustration by Simon Bening showing Satan approaching Jesus with a stone.

The Temptation of Christ by Ary Scheffer. Devil in popular culture. Hooks — "As in Zechariah 3: An Introduction to Ancient Faith , page "There are so many features that Zoroastrianism seems to share with the Judeo-Christian tradition that it would be difficult to Historically the first point of contact that we can determine is when the Achaemenian Cyrus conquered Babylon..

Heaven, heroes, and happiness: University press of America. The Oxford dictionary of the Jewish religion 2nd ed. Berber civilization was already at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing, trade, and political organization supported several states.

Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion also resulted in the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and in the extraction of tribute from others.

By the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. The Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars.

In BC the city of Carthage was destroyed. As Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. By the 2nd century BC, several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged.

Two of them were established in Numidia , behind the coastal areas controlled by Carthage. The high point of Berber civilization, unequaled until the coming of the Almohads and Almoravids more than a millennium later, was reached during the reign of Masinissa in the 2nd century BC.

For several centuries Algeria was ruled by the Romans, who founded many colonies in the region. Like the rest of North Africa, Algeria was one of the breadbaskets of the empire, exporting cereals and other agricultural products.

In fact, by the time the Byzantines arrived Lepcis Magna was abandoned and the Msellata region was occupied by the indigenous Laguatan who had been busy facilitating an Amazigh political, military and cultural revival.

After negligible resistance from the locals, Muslim Arabs of the Umayyad Caliphate conquered Algeria in the mid-7th century and a large number of the indigenous people converted to the newly founded faith of Islam.

After the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate, numerous local dynasties emerged, including the Aghlabids , Almohads , Abdalwadid , Zirids , Rustamids , Hammadids , Almoravids and the Fatimids.

It was during this time that the Fatimids or children of Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, came to the Maghreb. These "Fatimids" went on to found a long lasting dynasty stretching across the Maghreb, Hejaz and the Levant, boasting a secular inner government, as well as a powerful army and navy, made up primarily of Arabs and Levantines extending from Algeria to their capital state of Cairo.

The Fatimid caliphate began to collapse when its governors the Zirids seceded. The Zirids , however, were ultimately defeated ushering in an adoption of Arab customs and culture.

The indigenous Amazigh tribes, however, remained largely independent, and depending on tribe, location and time controlled varying parts of the Maghreb, at times unifying it as under the Fatimids.

The Amazighs historically consisted of several tribes. All these tribes made independent territorial decisions. Several Amazigh dynasties emerged during the Middle Ages in the Maghreb and other nearby lands.

In the early 16th century, Spain constructed fortified outposts presidios on or near the Algerian coast. In the same year, a few merchants of Algiers ceded one of the rocky islets in their harbour to Spain, which built a fort on it.

There reigned in Ifriqiya , current Tunisia, a Berber family, Zirid , somehow recognising the suzerainty of the Fatimid caliph of Cairo. Between the Nile and the Red Sea were living Bedouin tribes expelled from Arabia for their disruption and turbulent influence, both Banu Hilal and Banu Sulaym among others, whose presence disrupted farmers in the Nile Valley since the nomads would often loot.

The then Fatimid vizier devised to relinquish control of the Maghreb and obtained the agreement of his sovereign.

This not only prompted the Bedouins to leave, but the Fatimid treasury even gave them a light expatriation cash allowance. Whole tribes set off with women, children, ancestors, animals and camping equipment.

Some stopped on the way, especially in Cyrenaica , where they are still one of the essential elements of the settlement but most arrived in Ifriqiya by the Gabes region.

The Zirid ruler tried to stop this rising tide, but each meeting, the last under the walls of Kairouan , his troops were defeated and Arabs remained masters of the field.

The flood was still rising, and in the Arabs spread on the high plains of Constantine where they gradually choked Qalaa of Banu Hammad , as they had done Kairouan few decades ago.

From there they gradually gained the upper Algiers and Oran plains. Some were forcibly taken by the Almohads in the second half of the 12th century.

We can say that in the 13th century there were in all of North Africa , with the exception of the main mountain ranges and certain coastal regions remained entirely Berber.

The region of Algeria was partially ruled by Ottomans for three centuries from to In the Turkish privateer brothers Aruj and Hayreddin Barbarossa , who operated successfully under the Hafsids , moved their base of operations to Algiers.

They succeeded in conquering Jijel and Algiers from the Spaniards but eventually assumed control over the city and the surrounding region, forcing the previous ruler, Abu Hamo Musa III of the Bani Ziyad dynasty, to flee.

The Ottoman sultan gave him the title of beylerbey and a contingent of some 2, janissaries. With the aid of this force, Hayreddin conquered the whole area between Constantine and Oran although the city of Oran remained in Spanish hands until Until the area was governed by officers who served terms with no fixed limits.

Subsequently, with the institution of a regular Ottoman administration, governors with the title of pasha ruled for three-year terms.

The pasha was assisted by janissaries, known in Algeria as the ojaq and led by an agha. Discontent among the ojaq rose in the mids because they were not paid regularly, and they repeatedly revolted against the pasha.

As a result, the agha charged the pasha with corruption and incompetence and seized power in Plague had repeatedly struck the cities of North Africa.

Algiers lost from 30, to 50, inhabitants to the plague in —21, and suffered high fatalities in —57, , and — In , the taifa rebelled, killed the agha, and placed one of its own in power.

The new leader received the title of dey. After , the right to select the dey passed to the divan , a council of some sixty nobles.

In , the dey persuaded the sultan to recognise him and his successors as regent, replacing the pasha in that role, although Algiers remained a part of the Ottoman Empire.

The dey was in effect a constitutional autocrat. The dey was elected for a life term, but in the years — that the system survived, fourteen of the twenty-nine deys were assassinated.

Despite usurpation, military coups and occasional mob rule, the day-to-day operation of Ottoman government was remarkably orderly. Although the regency patronised the tribal chieftains, it never had the unanimous allegiance of the countryside, where heavy taxation frequently provoked unrest.

The Barbary pirates preyed on Christian and other non-Islamic shipping in the western Mediterranean Sea. According to Robert Davis, from the 16th to 19th century, pirates captured 1 million to 1.

In , Hayreddin captured the island of Ischia , taking 4, prisoners, and enslaved some 9, inhabitants of Lipari , almost the entire population.

In , pirates sacked Vieste in southern Italy and took an estimated 7, captives as slaves. In , Barbary corsairs captured the town of Ciutadella Minorca , destroyed it, slaughtered the inhabitants and took 3, survivors as slaves to Istanbul.

The threat was so severe that residents abandoned the island of Formentera. In July two pirate ships from Algiers sailed as far as Iceland , [47] raiding and capturing slaves.

Some of the slaves brought to Algiers were later ransomed back to Iceland, but some chose to stay in Algeria. In pirate ships from Algeria raided the Faroe Islands.

Barbary raids in the Mediterranean continued to attack Spanish merchant shipping, and as a result, the Spanish navy bombarded Algiers in and In the 19th century, the pirates forged affiliations with Caribbean powers, paying a "licence tax" in exchange for safe harbour of their vessels.

After a nine-hour bombardment, they obtained a treaty from the Dey that reaffirmed the conditions imposed by Captain later Commodore Stephen Decatur U.

Navy concerning the demands of tributes. In addition, the Dey agreed to end the practice of enslaving Christians. Despite being removed from Algeria in the 19th century, Spain retained a presence in Morocco.

Algeria consistently opposed Spanish fortresses and control in nearby Morocco through the 20th century. Under the pretext of a slight to their consul, the French invaded and captured Algiers in A combination of violence and disease epidemics caused the indigenous Algerian population to decline by nearly one-third from to The war had killed approximately , indigenous Algerians since As a consequence, French government favored the Kabyles.

Between and , 50, French people emigrated to Algeria. During the late 19th and early 20th century; the European share was almost a fifth of the population.

The French government aimed at making Algeria an assimilated part of France, and this included substantial educational investments especially after Gradually, dissatisfaction among the Muslim population, which lacked political and economic status in the colonial system, gave rise to demands for greater political autonomy and eventually independence from France.

Tensions between the two population groups came to a head in , when the first violent events of what was later called the Algerian War began. The war led to the death of hundreds of thousands of Algerians and hundreds of thousands of injuries.

Horne estimated Algerian casualties during the span of eight years to be around , The war against French rule concluded in , when Algeria gained complete independence following the March Evian agreements and the July self-determination referendum.

The number of European Pied-Noirs who fled Algeria totaled more than , between and But, he relied much more on the army for his support, and reduced the sole legal party to a symbolic role.

He collectivised agriculture and launched a massive industrialization drive. Oil extraction facilities were nationalised. This was especially beneficial to the leadership after the international oil crisis.

In the s and s under President Houari Boumediene, Algeria pursued a program of industrialization within a state-controlled socialist economy.

He promoted a policy of Arabisation in Algerian society and public life. Teachers of Arabic, brought in from other Muslim countries, spread conventional Islamic thought in schools and sowed the seeds of a return to Orthodox Islam.

The Algerian economy became increasingly dependent on oil, leading to hardship when the price collapsed during the s oil glut.

In December the Islamic Salvation Front dominated the first of two rounds of legislative elections. Fearing the election of an Islamist government, the authorities intervened on 11 January , cancelling the elections.

Bendjedid resigned and a High Council of State was installed to act as Presidency. The Islamist militants conducted a violent campaign of civilian massacres.

The Armed Islamic Group declared a ceasefire in October Algeria held elections in , considered biased by international observers and most opposition groups [78] which were won by President Abdelaziz Bouteflika.

He worked to restore political stability to the country and announced a "Civil Concord" initiative, approved in a referendum , under which many political prisoners were pardoned, and several thousand members of armed groups were granted exemption from prosecution under a limited amnesty, in force until 13 January The AIS disbanded and levels of insurgent violence fell rapidly.

Bouteflika was re-elected in the April presidential election after campaigning on a programme of national reconciliation. The programme comprised economic, institutional, political and social reform to modernise the country, raise living standards, and tackle the causes of alienation.

It also included a second amnesty initiative, the Charter for Peace and National Reconciliation , which was approved in a referendum in September It offered amnesty to most guerrillas and Government security forces.

In November , the Algerian Constitution was amended following a vote in Parliament, removing the two-term limit on Presidential incumbents. This change enabled Bouteflika to stand for re-election in the presidential elections , and he was re-elected in April A continuing series of protests throughout the country started on 28 December , inspired by similar protests across the Middle East and North Africa.

Algeria is the largest country in Africa, and the Mediterranean Basin. Its southern part includes a significant portion of the Sahara.

To the north, the Tell Atlas form with the Saharan Atlas , further south, two parallel sets of reliefs in approaching eastbound, and between which are inserted vast plains and highlands.

Both Atlas tend to merge in eastern Algeria. The vast mountain ranges of Aures and Nememcha occupy the entire northeastern Algeria and are delineated by the Tunisian border.

The highest point is Mount Tahat 3, m. Most of the coastal area is hilly, sometimes even mountainous, and there are a few natural harbours.

The area from the coast to the Tell Atlas is fertile. South of the Tell Atlas is a steppe landscape ending with the Saharan Atlas ; farther south, there is the Sahara desert.

The Hoggar Mountains Arabic: In this region, midday desert temperatures can be hot year round. After sunset, however, the clear, dry air permits rapid loss of heat, and the nights are cool to chilly.

Enormous daily ranges in temperature are recorded. Farther inland, the rainfall is less plentiful. Algeria also has ergs , or sand dunes, between mountains.

Among these, in the summer time when winds are heavy and gusty, temperatures can get up to The varied vegetation of Algeria includes coastal , mountainous and grassy desert -like regions which all support a wide range of wildlife.

Many of the creatures comprising the Algerian wildlife live in close proximity to civilization. The most commonly seen animals include the wild boars , jackals , and gazelles , although it is not uncommon to spot fennecs foxes , and jerboas.

Algeria also has a small African leopard and Saharan cheetah population, but these are seldom seen. A species of deer, the Barbary stag , inhabits the dense humid forests in the north-eastern areas.

A variety of bird species makes the country an attraction for bird watchers. The forests are inhabited by boars and jackals. Barbary macaques are the sole native monkey.

Snakes, monitor lizards , and numerous other reptiles can be found living among an array of rodents throughout the semi arid regions of Algeria.

Many animals are now extinct, including the Barbary lions , Atlas bears and crocodiles. In the north, some of the native flora includes Macchia scrub, olive trees , oaks , cedars and other conifers.

The mountain regions contain large forests of evergreens Aleppo pine , juniper , and evergreen oak and some deciduous trees. Fig , eucalyptus , agave , and various palm trees grow in the warmer areas.

The grape vine is indigenous to the coast. In the Sahara region, some oases have palm trees. Acacias with wild olives are the predominant flora in the remainder of the Sahara.

Camels are used extensively; the desert also abounds with venomous and nonvenomous snakes, scorpions , and numerous insects. Elected politicians are considered to have relatively little sway over Algeria.

After the death of General Larbi Belkheir , Bouteflika put loyalists in key posts, notably at Sonatrach , and secured constitutional amendments that make him re-electable indefinitely.

The head of state is the president of Algeria, who is elected for a five-year term. The president was formerly limited to two five-year terms, but a constitutional amendment passed by the Parliament on 11 November removed this limitation.

He appoints the Prime Minister who is also the head of government. In addition, political campaigns must be exempt from the aforementioned subjects.

Parliamentary elections were last held in May , and were judged to be largely free by international monitors, though local groups alleged fraud and irregularities.

Giving incentives and rewarding best performers, as well as offering funds in a faster and more flexible manner, are the two main principles underlying the European Neighbourhood Instrument ENI that came into force in In , the French government agreed to compensate victims of nuclear tests in Algeria.

Algerian officials and activists believe that this is a good first step and hope that this move would encourage broader reparation.

Tensions between Algeria and Morocco in relation to the Western Sahara have been an obstacle to tightening the Arab Maghreb Union , nominally established in , but which has carried little practical weight.

Total military personnel include , active, , reserve, and , paramilitary staff estimate. Russia is also building two type diesel submarines for Algeria.

Algeria has been categorized by Freedom House as "not free" since it began publishing such ratings in , with the exception of , , and , when the country was labeled "partly free.

It clarified that the Algerian government imposed restriction on freedom of the press ; expression; and right to peaceful demonstration, protest and assembly as well as intensified censorship of the media and websites.

Independent and autonomous trade unions face routine harassment from the government, with many leaders imprisoned and protests suppressed. In a number of unions, many of which were involved in the — Algerian Protests, have been deregistered by the government.

Homosexuality is illegal in Algeria. Each province, district, and municipality is named after its seat , which is usually the largest city.

The administrative divisions have changed several times since independence. When introducing new provinces, the numbers of old provinces are kept, hence the non-alphabetical order.

With their official numbers, currently since they are [5]. Algeria is classified as an upper middle income country by the World Bank. In recent years, the Algerian government has halted the privatization of state-owned industries and imposed restrictions on imports and foreign involvement in its economy.

Algeria has struggled to develop industries outside hydrocarbons in part because of high costs and an inert state bureaucracy.

The Algerian economy grew by 2. If hydrocarbons are excluded, growth has been estimated at 4. The current-account surplus is estimated at 9.

Algeria has not joined the WTO , despite several years of negotiations. Algeria, whose economy is reliant on petroleum, has been an OPEC member since Its crude oil production stands at around 1.

Algeria has the 10th-largest reserves of natural gas in the world and is the sixth-largest gas exporter. To cope with social demands, the authorities raised expenditure, especially on basic food support, employment creation, support for SMEs, and higher salaries.

High hydrocarbon prices have improved the current account and the already large international reserves position.

Income from oil and gas rose in as a result of continuing high oil prices, though the trend in production volume is downwards. The Algerian national oil company is Sonatrach , which plays a key role in all aspects of the oil and natural gas sectors in Algeria.

All foreign operators must work in partnership with Sonatrach, which usually has majority ownership in production-sharing agreements. Algeria has invested an estimated billion dinars towards developing research facilities and paying researchers.

This development program is meant to advance alternative energy production, especially solar and wind power. Currently, Algeria has 20, research professors at various universities and over research labs, with state-set goals to expand to 1, Besides solar energy, areas of research in Algeria include space and satellite telecommunications, nuclear power and medical research.

Despite a decline in total unemployment , youth and women unemployment is high. The development of the tourism sector in Algeria had previously been hampered by a lack of facilities, but since a broad tourism development strategy has been implemented resulting in many hotels of a high modern standard being built.

This network will be complemented by the East-West Highway , a major infrastructure project currently under construction. Algeria is also crossed by the Trans-Sahara Highway , which is now completely paved.

This road is supported by the Algerian government to increase trade between the six countries crossed: Increasingly, women are contributing more to household income than men.

Between 90, and , Sahrawis from Western Sahara live in the Sahrawi refugee camps , [] [] in the western Algerian Sahara desert. The largest concentration of Algerian migrants outside Algeria is in France, which has reportedly over 1.

Despite the dominance of the Berber culture and ethnicity in Algeria, the majority of Algerians identify with an Arabic-based identity, especially after the Arab nationalism rising in the 20th century.

The largest of these are the Kabyles, who live in the Kabylie region east of Algiers, the Chaoui of Northeast Algeria, the Tuaregs in the southern desert and the Shenwa people of North Algeria.

They were primarily of French, Spanish and Italian origin. Almost all of this population left during the war of independence or immediately after its end.

Berber and Modern Standard Arabic are the official languages. Colloquial Algerian Arabic is heavily infused with borrowings from French and Berber.

Berber has been recognized as a "national language" by the constitutional amendment of 8 May In February , the Algerian constitution passed a resolution that would make Berber an official language alongside Arabic.

It can be regarded as a lingua franca of Algeria. After an earlier period during which the Algerian government tried to phase out French which is why it has no official status , in recent decades the government has backtracked and reinforced the study of French and TV programs have reinforced use of the language.

Algeria emerged as a bilingual state after Among the important novelists of the s were Rachid Mimouni , later vice-president of Amnesty International , and Tahar Djaout , murdered by an Islamist group in for his secularist views.

The works of the Sanusi family in pre-colonial times, and of Emir Abdelkader and Sheikh Ben Badis in colonial times, are widely noted.

Contemporary Algerian cinema is various in terms of genre, exploring a wider range of themes and issues. There has been a transition from cinema which focused on the war of independence to films more concerned with the everyday lives of Algerians.

Algerian painters, like Mohamed Racim or Baya, attempted to revive the prestigious Algerian past prior to French colonization, at the same time that they have contributed to the preservation of the authentic values of Algeria.

In this line, Mohamed Temam , Abdelkhader Houamel have also returned through this art, scenes from the history of the country, the habits and customs of the past and the country life.

The historic roots of Algerian literature go back to the Numidian and Roman African era, when Apuleius wrote The Golden Ass , the only Latin novel to survive in its entirety.

The Middle Ages have known many Arabic writers who revolutionized the Arab world literature, with authors like Ahmad al-Buni , Ibn Manzur and Ibn Khaldoun , who wrote the Muqaddimah while staying in Algeria, and many others.

In he was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature. Today Algeria contains, in its literary landscape, big names having not only marked the Algerian literature, but also the universal literary heritage in Arabic and French.

As a first step, Algerian literature was marked by works whose main concern was the assertion of the Algerian national entity, there is the publication of novels as the Algerian trilogy of Mohammed Dib , or even Nedjma of Kateb Yacine novel which is often regarded as a monumental and major work.

In the aftermath of the independence, several new authors emerged on the Algerian literary scene, they will attempt through their works to expose a number of social problems, among them there are Rachid Boudjedra , Rachid Mimouni , Leila Sebbar , Tahar Djaout and Tahir Wattar.

Currently, a part of Algerian writers tends to be defined in a literature of shocking expression, due to the terrorism that occurred during the s, the other party is defined in a different style of literature who staged an individualistic conception of the human adventure.

Rahaba music style is unique to the Aures. Souad Massi is a rising Algerian folk singer. Tergui music is sung in Tuareg languages generally, Tinariwen had a worldwide success.

Rap , relatively recent style in Algeria, is experiencing significant growth. In mid, AARC had already supported a total of 78 films, including 42 feature films, 6 short films and 30 documentaries.

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